A family ANZAC: Pte Hugh Moran Part II

After Pte Hugh Moran enlisted in 1940 he was sent first to Darwin then north Africa where he was captured and taken as a Prisoner of War to Italy from 1941 to 1943. You can read about his experience in Part I.

Stalag VIIIB P10003.002

Some of the AIF POWs at Stalag VIIIB/344. http://www.awm.gov.au/collections/P100003.02

As the Italians signed the Armistice of Cassibile in September 1943, the Germans took over the prisoners of war and promptly relocated them north. There is a website, drawn on the NZ Official History of WWII, which reveals the reality of this transfer and what it means to POWs like Hugh[i]:

From those camps that were taken over by German troops in September 1943, all except the few who succeeded in hiding were marched to the nearest railway station. The Germans took what precautions they could to prevent escapes-a strong guard along the route, threats before setting out of the dire consequences that would follow any attempted breaks, even a demonstration with a flame-thrower at Campo PG 57.

Most of the trains went north via Verona, through the Brenner Pass to Innsbruck, though a few took the more easterly Tarvisio Pass to Villach…They were almost entirely made up of cattle-trucks and closed goods-wagons with a very few third-class carriages… Into these trucks the prisoners were packed, as many as fifty in each…The sliding doors were closed and bolted, and prisoners were left for the journey with at most two small openings in the sides of the truck for air and light, no provision for latrines, and only such food and water as they had been able to carry with them….There were occasional halts on the journey north, often not long enough for every truckload to be allowed out. On the longer journeys there were considerable halts at stations and sometimes meals from the German Red Cross.[ii]

POW route Moran

An as-the-crow-flies map of Hugh’s “travels” starting from near Derna where he was captured.

Those from Campo 57 were the first large party from Italy to reach Stalag XVIIIC at Markt Pongau in Austria, a transit camp …roughly 25 miles south of Salzburg, the camp was very dirty and the barracks infested with vermin… For the first time they tasted the typical German stalag fare – vegetable soup and ‘black’ bread, boiled potatoes and mint tea. After a fortnight or so most went north to Stalag VIIIA at Görlitz in Saxony.

Hugh was among those transferred to Stalag VIIIA on 24 September 1943 thence to Stalag VIIIB on 2 November 1943 and in June 1944 to Stalag 344 (my understanding is the latter two were essentially the same).  These prisons were in Lamsdorf in then-Upper Silesia, and now called Łambinowice in Poland.[iii]

This huge camp (VIIIB/Lamsdorf) which had started to show improvement since the appointment of a new German commandant, now became still larger through the sudden influx from Italy and numbered well over 30,000, 10,000 of them in the stalag itself … Those who had come from Italy, more especially those from Campo PG 57, wondered at the comparative lack of discipline in this camp and at the activities that could go on inside it unknown to the enemy… Sooner or later the newcomers, who had all been graded by German doctors according to the type of labour they were medically fit for left for coal mines or other places of work in Silesia.MORAN Hugh pic c1943

It is Hugh’s German Prisoner of War record, included with his AIF personnel file, that reveals more details about his experience. He has plainly completed the basic details, as the rest is written in German. The photograph included shows the impact of the preceding years as he is plainly gaunt and has acquired the typical McSherry baldness (inherited through his mother). It also tells us he blond (really?) and 177cms tall (70 inches), approximately the same height as me – which makes him short for a male with McSherry genes.

MORAN Hugh work record Stalag 344

This extract from Hugh’s German record seems to document his work allocation.

Brit POW Stalag 344 mid_000000

http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205184697. German photograph of British POWs working in a quarry at Lambard. Free of copyright.

However, in his debriefing on return to the United Kingdom in 1944, Hugh describes the Stalag/prison rations, accommodation, bathing and hygiene as “bad” and the recreational facilities as “poor”.  While he had not been required to work while in Italy at Campo 57, Hugh states that in Germany he did hard manual labour, pick and shovel work, for 12-14 hours a day. All of which no doubt contributed to his gaunt frame in the photograph taken in Germany, or exacerbated it.

His troubles were far from over, however. As the war ground towards its conclusion, and the arrival of Russian troops became imminent, the German forces made the decision to move their prisoners west. And so started what was to become known as the Long March[iv], The Black March, The Bread March or the Lamsdorf Death March but most survivors just called it “The March”.  In the depths of winter under freezing conditions, with minimal food, the men walked hundreds of kilometres, between January and March 1945[v] with the Lamsdorf men heading north via Dresden. (You can see a map here of POW movements). It was an exhausting, hazardous and debilitating experience for the men, drawing on reserves of strength both physical and mental.

Lamsdorf death march 2 P10548.009

A photograph taken during the Lamsdorf Death March gives a glimpse of the conditions the men had to march. https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/P10548.009

With the surrender of Germany, on 4 May 1945 RAF Bomber Command implemented Operation Exodus, and the first prisoners of war were repatriated by air in aircraft. Bomber Command flew 2,900 sorties over the next 23 days, carrying 72,500 prisoners of war.[vi]

Moran recovery to UK

Extract from Hugh Moran’s service record. NAA series B883, QX7775

Private Hugh Augustine Moran was one of the prisoners recovered by Bomber Command, and for me it’s interesting to ponder whether a friend of ours, Don Curnow, was part of this relief effort. Hugh’s personnel file records that on 19 May 1945, he was deplaned UK as recovered PW (Prisoner of War) M/I and taken on holding strength at 1AIF Transit Camp. This is presumably where his debriefing took place. In this statement, he records that he had been captured on 7 April 1941, with a portion of HQ and including Lt Col Marlan and Major Barton as well as Private L Milne (2/15Bn).

MORAN POW sment

Extract from Pte Moran’s service record at naa.gov.au

Officers missing 15th Bn

Hugh’s report aligns with the official war diary for the 15th Battalion February-April 1941, AWM52 8/3/15/12

After capture, Hugh had been held at Campo 57 from 15 May 1941 to 15 September 1943 then Stalag VIIIA from September to November 1943 before transfer to Stalag VIIIB/344 from May to November 1944. There are a number of photos of the camp on the Imperial War Museum site, but many are copyrighted. While in Germany he was given “reasonable” treatment for stomach pains and bronchitis. He states he had not received Red Cross parcels or mail during his time there.  Had his parcels or mail been blocked or did his family not know where he was?

MORAN POW camps

Extracted from Pte Moran’s Repatriation statement.

On 7 June 1945, Hugh once again had a stint AWOL…for a whole three hours. Who could blame him after being confined for four years? Apparently the Army didn’t feel the same as he was docked a total of 12 days pay…I suppose they didn’t want these men to get delusions of independence, or insubordination. It’s ironic that he told the Germans his former occupation was “timekeeper” which is pretty odd for someone who seemed to miss returning to barracks by mere hours on most occasions.

On 19 June Hugh was repatriated to Australia on the ship “J12” and on 24 August, he was taken on strength in Queensland. Apparently while in Sydney he was taken to the Camp Hospital with scabies. I imagine it was quite some time before his health returned to normal, if ever. He was discharged from the Army on 13 September 1945, leaving him to continue life as a civilian. I can’t help wondering if he wished he’d joined the railway, a reserved occupation, and one held by most of the McSherry men over some generations.

Moran retd fm active service

Hugh died on 8 February 1995, when he was 88 years old, which is amazing considering what he’d gone through. He is buried in the Martyn St Cemetery in Cairns.

It was a revelation to me to unearth this story of my first cousin once removed, Hugh Augustine McSherry[vii]. I hope this post serves as a memorial to his contribution to Australia’s military history.

You can read other posts about Pte Hugh Moran here and here.

LEST WE FORGET

Thanks to my cousin Bev for sending this photo of Hughie in later life at his cousin’s birthday. Isn’t it lovely to see him looking happy and healthy? If I’m not mistaken, he’s wearing his RSL pin.  Thanks Bev.

PhyllisRoy and HughMoran1988 IMG

Previous Anzac Day posts are:

2016 and 2012: Villers-Brettoneux and James Paterson

2015: A Gallipoli Everyman: Victor Joseph Sanders

2014: Postcards to the Front 1917

2013: Valiant Indigenous Anzacs

2011: Honouring the Australian-born Diggers with German ancestry

Wealth for Toil on the Railway includes the story of my grandfather’s war service.

[i] http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-GreLong-t1-body-d8.html extract from the NZ Official History

[ii] Ibid

[iii] http://www.lamsdorf.com/history.html

[iv] http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-GreLong-t1-body-d9.html

[v] http://www.lamsdorf.com/the-long-march.html. DO READ THIS IF POSSIBLE.

[vi] ibid

[vii] B503, Q2334 Prisoner of War Record and B883 QX7775. http://naa.gov.au

 

A family ANZAC: Pte Hugh Moran (Part I)

Gallipoli magnet 2015It has become a tradition among Australian and New Zealand genealogy bloggers to remember our ANZAC family members and others on Anzac Day each year. This is my contribution for 2017 – a man I knew nothing about until this week.

Hugh Augustine Moran was my mother’s first cousin, born in Ingham, Queensland on 6 April 1906[i] to James Hugh Moran and Bridget McSherry.

MORAN Hugh Augustine small

Pte Hugh Moran, QX7775 Service file naa.gov.au

On 11 June 1940, Hugh enlisted to join the Australian Imperial Forces (AIF) in Cairns, Far North Queensland. His age is given on enlistment as 33 years 11 months, though he had only recently celebrated his 34th birthday[ii], had brown hair, blue eyes and a scar on his forehead. Hugh had been working as a labourer in Kirrima, Cardwell and had served 7 years with the citizen military forces (CMF). He was taken on strength with 2/15th Battalion.

The importance of reading the war diaries becomes apparent when we find that the 15th served garrison duty in Darwin for three months which is not noted on his file…you need to look at the big picture of the unit to discover the overall action plan.

15th Bn DRW 1940 AWM P00092.037

Australian War Memorial Image ID P00092.037. 15th Battalion march past Colonel Marlan prior to leaving Darwin, December 1941. They were stationed at Vestey’s Beach near the current day Sailing Club.

Hugh’s file notes that he was marched out to East Command in December 1940, embarking for overseas on Boxing Day 1940. Meanwhile Hugh had treated himself to a pre-Christmas excursion without leave from Redbank on 22nd-23rd December for 28 hrs. He was duly fined, which probably didn’t bother him much if he had someone he wanted to see, or even if he wanted to have a drink or two, or more, to calm his jitters before heading overseas to battle.

AWM Queen Mary Dec 1940 P00527.003

Troops boarding the Queen Mary on 26 December 1941 en route to the Middle East.

The Australian War Memorial’s (AWM) brief history of the 2/15th tells us they sailed “aboard the Queen Mary with the 20th Brigade to Palestine via India, transhipping to the Rohna at Bombay. (OIC of the 15th, Lt Col R F Marlan was Officer Commanding Troops on the voyage).

The 20th Brigade transferred from the 7th to the 9th Division en route to the Middle East. It arrived at El Kantara in Egypt at the start of February 1941 and moved to Kilo 89 in Palestine for desert training.”[iii]

In March 1941 Hugh was attached briefly to the 2/23rd Battalion, 9th Division, for a month between 2 and 29 March when he returned to the 2/15th.

The 2/15th moved to Gabel El Gira on 27 March and then Barce. German forces had landed at Tripoli and were advancing east. It was involved in the withdrawal of British forces to Tobruk, referred to as the “Benghazi handicap”. The withdrawal cost the battalion heavily: the commanding officer (Lt Col Marlan), second in command (Major Barton), and 154 men were captured at El Gazala.

It was during this dash to take and hold Tobruk that Hugh was taken prisoner of war, between Derna and Barce in the Cyrenaica region of Libya. He was one of the 154 mentioned above. They had been caught in the aggressive attack by the great German soldier, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel aka the Desert Rat.

Rommel launched his assault on March 24, 1941, sending three mechanized columns rumbling northward and eastward. The fast-moving Germans chased the retreating British along the coast road, rolled into Benghazi, and swept on to Barce and Derna. One panzer column captured inland fuel dumps and burst out onto the coastal plain at Gazala. Another column executed a wide flanking movement to try to capture British units evacuating from Cyrenaica. The Allies were in full retreat, and it seemed as if nothing could halt Rommel’s advance[iv]. However Rommel was to later get his come-uppance at El Alamein at the hands of the British forces.

MORAN Hugh POW Italy

Extract from Hugh Moran’s service and casualty form. http://naa.gov.au Series B883 QX7775

Hugh was reported Missing in Action, presumed Prisoner of War, effective 7 April 1941, and this was confirmed on 30 June 1941. Unfortunately, the WWII personnel files don’t include notifications to next of kin, and in fact we’re fortunate that this document had already been digitised.

It’s initially unclear whether Hugh was held as POW locally or taken directly to Italy. Once again he was unfortunate, because the camp to which he was sent, Campo 57 Gruppignano near Udine in north-east Italy, was under the command of former Italian Carabinieri officer,[v] Colonel Vittorio Calcaterra. He had been described by one prisoner as “a sadist and a beast and an accessory to murder”(no reference provided).

AWM Campo 57 P02793.008

AWM Image P02793.008 Campo 57 Prisoner of War huts behind two layers of barbed wire. If prisoners were found in the white-stone area,  between the trip wire and the inner fence they would be shot. In the background is the Catholic chapel which the POWs helped to build.

Thanks to Calcaterra, conditions in Campo 57 were extremely harsh. Food was poor, and housing was crowded and insanitary. The prisoners had to improvise their own medical treatment, coping with the “57 twins”, pneumonia and kidney disease…The number saved by Red Cross aid, he wrote, “is beyond computation”. Calcaterra died before he could be tried as a war criminal.

There is a wonderful sketch in this story, The Stolen Years, which graphically portrays the life of POWs at Campo 57. This article argues that soldiers may have been (somewhat) resigned to death or injury, but rarely thought about what they’d do if taken Prisoner of War and the psychological impact of that[vi]. It quotes one soldier’s experience but we have no idea whether this tallied with that of Hugh Moran:

When he finally reached his permanent camp of detention at PG 57 Gruppignano, where nearly all Australian and New Zealand other ranks had been concentrated, Ted Faulkes too, had to make a monumental change of attitude to different standards of hygiene, diet, discipline and organisation.  But at least he was among his peers, and within the camp, responsive to the discipline of his own Australian NCOs as he basically he had been in battle. To some extent his individual temperament and personality had already been moulded by the structure and esprit de corps of his AIF unit – the 2/32nd Infantry Battalion.

The initial transport of POW from the battlefield is by military truck from a holding pen to a rear transit camp, where officers are separated from other ranks[vii]….They were moved either by boat or train (or presumably both in the case of those captured in North Africa).

We have no direct evidence of Hugh’s life in Campo 57 but the above stories and images reveal some of the experience.

Read Part II to learn more about phase 2 of Hugh’s war service and what happened to him after Italy.

And to learn about Hugh’s war in his own words, read here.

 

—————————-

[i] Military file on naa.gov.au and Queensland Birth registration C1750.

[ii] His medical inspection was on 1 June so perhaps that explains it.

[iii] https://www.awm.gov.au/unit/U56058/

[iv] http://warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/wwii/debacle-in-the-desert-the-siege-of-tobruk/

[v] https://www.awm.gov.au/exhibitions/stolenyears/ww2/italy/story2.asp

[vi] http://www.aifpow.com/part_1__missing_in_action,_believed_pow/chapter_2__being_a_pow

[vii] http://www.aifpow.com/part_1__missing_in_action,_believed_pow/chapter_4__transportation_of_pow

The Reddan and Liddy Families: Part II

We saw in my previous post that there were at least three siblings born to James Reddan and Mary Scott of Gortnaglogh, Broadford, Clare. Thanks to DNA matches, clues from descendants, and further research we have learned a little about children Winifred and James and their lives in the USA.

However, what did happen to their older sister Mary?

My theory was that if she had also emigrated to the US we’d likely find her with or near her siblings in Manchester, Connecticut. Did she marry, or did she become her parents’ carer?

I turned once again to the online Catholic parish registers for Broadford, County Clare. Sure enough, Mary Reddan of Gortnaglogh is married on 18 February 1871 to Patrick Liddy from Knockbrack townland in the Parish of Kilnoe. The witnesses once again confirm the family linkages: Pat Tuohy of Knockbrack and Margaret O’Brien from Ballykelly (sister to my 2xgreat grandmother).

REDDAN LIDDY marriage 1871

Marriage extract from the Broadford Parish Registers for 1871.

Pat and Mary Liddy had a large family (baptisms in the Parish of Kilnoe, parents living in the townland of Ballydonaghan):

  1. Patrick 11 Nov 1871 witnesses Michael Reddan and Margaret Liddy

Underneath his name is an annotation to indicate he was married in New York, but unfortunately some of it is obscured. Married to El….Connors (?) at Ascension Church, New York on Oct 9, 191x.

  1. Matthew 28 March 1873 witnesses Michael Reddan and Mary Tuohy
  2. Margaret 7 July 1875 witnesses John Fahey and Ellen Tuohy
  3. John born 1 May 1877 (civil registration)
  4. Bridget 26 February 1879 witnesses John Reddan and Anne Tuohy
  5. Michael born 2 August 1881
  6. Thomas born 30 April 1883 (civil)
Ballydonaghan Askaboutireland

Map of Ballydonaghan townland from Ask About Ireland and Valuations Office.

It seems highly likely that the Tuohy family were close relatives of the Liddy family, perhaps cousins. It’s also relevant that Pat and Mary lived close to Mary’s likely cousin (or 2nd cousin), Honora Garvey at Ballydonaghan. Honora is another sister to my 2xgreat grandmother, Mary O’Brien so this may be how the couple came to know each other.  Pat Liddy is also a witness to the baptism of John Garvey jnr in 1877.

At the time of the 1901 census the family at Ballydonohane (sp) in the DED of Boherglass included Mary 56, John 20, Bridget 18, and Thomas 15 who could all read and write, but none spoke Irish[i]. Mary was already widowed. They were living in a 2nd class dwelling of stone with a thatched roof, 3[ii] rooms and 3 front windows. Their farm included a stable, a cow house, piggery and barn[iii].

By 1911, only John 32, and Thomas 25, are residing on the farm, which had different outhouses: stable, coach house, cow house and calf house.

LIDDY Mary death 1909

Civil registration extract.

It seemed likely Mary had died between 1901 and 1911, so I turned to the civil registration records[iv] to find her death. Luckily, for this period it also included images, so I could confirm I had the right person and learn that daughter Bridget had been present at Mary’s death on 20 February 1909.  Mary was aged 71 (hmm, an interesting age jump since the 1901 census), and she was the widow of Patrick Liddy of Ballydonaghan. In the same way I found Pat’s death on 3 July 1900, aged 61, also witnessed by his daughter Bridget.

OCallaghans estate evictions

Extract of list of tenants on the O’Callaghan estate per Clarelibrary.ie

Although Mary was only 63 at the time of her death, based on baptism dates, she had experienced enormous tragedies. She was born in the depths of the Great Irish Famine yet survived. What impact did it have on her long-term health I wonder? Her son Matthew (17yo) died on 5 February 1891 from “probable meningitis” followed on 18 May 1895 by the death of their youngest son, Michael, aged 13, from pneumonia.  Only five years later her husband Pat died. She must have felt buffeted by some fierce winds of life.

However, this is “only” some of the challenges of her life. She and Pat had also experienced the drama and near-tragedy of being evicted from O’Callaghan’s estate in Bodyke. These evictions are infamous as one of the key factors in the Land Wars. The Liddy family appears on the list of tenants of the estate, and another Liddy/Lyddy family from the townland of Clonmoher was among the two families evicted on the first day[v]. The O’Callaghan estate files are held in the National Library of Ireland’s reference library and may contain some additional information on this family, as they do for the Garvey family.

Given the notation of son Patrick’s baptism, it seems likely he had emigrated to the United States either before Pat snr’s death, or between that of both parents, however I have been unsuccessful in tracing his immigration or naturalisation. It is unknown what happened to their daughters Margaret (pre-1901) or Bridget[vi] (after 1901): did she die, emigrate or marry in the USA or Ireland? John Liddy married Margaret Ryan in Ogonnoloe on 13 February 1912[vii] and presumably remained on the family farm.  Younger brother, Thomas, emigrated on 6 June 1913 on the Mauretania[viii]. The passenger record shows his former residence is with his brother John at Ballydonehan, Bodyke and he was planning to stay with his brother Pat at 1804, 3rd Avenue New York. Thomas states himself as a 22 year old labourer.

Mauretania Tyne and Wear Museum

Mauretania on her maiden voyage in 1907, leaving Tyneside. Image from Tyne and Wear Museum.

Meanwhile, what became of the Reddan property at Gortnaglogh? The Valuation Revisions indicate that ultimately the farms of James and Pat Reddan were combined and inherited by Michael Reddan by at least the early 20th century. As yet, it’s not known what kinship exists between Pat Reddan’s family and that of James Reddan but is seems likely they were cousins of some degree. Pat Reddan died in 1892, aged 97, on 7 February, and his widow, Winifred, aged 92 died on 10 February. Both deaths were witnessed by son Michael. Of course, like so much in genealogy, one discovery arrives with more questions. Where did this Winifred come from? I can not find their marriage, and the mother of Winifred, James and Mary was stated as Mary Scott….did she perhaps have a two first names, based on the naming patterns?  The Michael Reddan who resides at Gortnaglogh in 1901 is the correct age for the one born to Pat Reddan and Mary Daniher…so who is Winifred? What am I missing here?

REDDAN Patrick and Winifred deaths 1892

Image extracted from ID 3709465 on irishgenealogy.ie Civil Registrations.

The bonus of DNA is that it has established a kinship connection between James and Mary Reddan’s children, Winifred, James and Mary.

I wonder if a Liddy match will come up at some stage?

I’d be very interested in hearing from any descendants of these families, either in Ireland or in the USA or elsewhere.

I’m also curious how many east Clare descendants have had their DNA tested…feel free to contact me if you wish.

—————————-

[i] Householder’s return (Form A)

[ii] House and Building return. (Form B1)

[iii] Out offices and farm steadings return (Form B2)

[iv] https://civilrecords.irishgenealogy.ie/churchrecords/civil-search.jsp

[v] My assumption re this family is based on the fact that the other eviction that day was of the widow Margaret McNamara who also lived at Clonmoher.

[vi] I can not find her marriage or death in the Irish records, nor an obvious immigration record. She is not the Bridget Lyddy who emigrates on the Celtic in 1910 as her former residence is with her father, John at Bodyke and it seems likely this is John Lyddy from Clonmoher townland.

[vii] Civil registration 1971946

[viii] Donated material on the Clare Library website from Ellis Island information.

The Reddans from Gortnaglogh: Part I

I’ve been very fortunate that a few of my close cousins have agreed to be DNA tested, helping to expand our family knowledge. One of those tests came through from Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) last week, and as the genetic blender would have it, produced a cousin match which doesn’t genetically match in common with me, or other family members on that branch. This is not unexpected since each layer of genetic inheritance mixes more or less randomly – even siblings don’t have identical DNA.

The most exciting aspect of this match is that it linked to a family I’ve long hypothesised as being closely related to my O’Brien-Reddan family from Ballykelly townland near Broadford, Clare. I knew that members of my family had often witnessed church events for the Reddan families from the nearby townland of Gortnaglogh, and vice versa. In fact, one of the last things our Mary O’Brien (later Kunkel), did before she left Ireland was to act as sponsor to the baptism, on 19 September 1852, of James Reddan, son of James Reddan and Mary Scott from Gortnaglogh.

REDDAN James Baptism

Extract from Broadford (Kilseily) parish registers.

How did I find which cousin was relevant among the matches?

In this instance, I searched the matches for known family names (sometimes I search by place). This produced three people who had Reddan ancestors: me, Nora (my 3C1R) and Robert. This tied in with an Ancestry match with my own DNA: a woman whose ancestry also included Reddan, and whose tree rang lots of bells for me. Her tree included the Reddans from Gortnaglogh. At least two of the children, James (above) and Winifred, had emigrated to the United States, apparently sometime in the mid/late 1860s. Previously I wasn’t sure this match was IDB as it was quite weak at 7.3cMs, and without being able to look at the chromosomes it was tricky. The second match through FTDNA confirmed to me it wasn’t coincidence.

With these DNA matches in hand, I went back to my East Clare database[i] and also used the Irish Catholic parish registers for Kilseily/Broadford, available on National Library of Ireland, Ancestry and Findmypast.

I found two Reddan families having children in Gortnaglogh around the time the parish registers commence in 1844. (Note – the priests did not indicate the townlands until some years after the registers commence).

Gortnaglogh original GV map edit

Gortnaglogh townland from Griffith’s Valuation – original map from The Irish Valuation Office on Findmypast.com. The plots leased by the Reddans are coloured.

James Reddan and Mary Scott married in Kilseily parish on 4 February 1845 (in the early days of the Great Irish Famine). The witnesses were James Barry and Judy Carroll. They had the following children I’ve identified from the registers:

  1.  Mary bapt 4 Aug 1846 witnesses James Moloney and Catherine Reddan
  2. Winifred bapt June 1848 witnesses Michael Moloney and Judy Moloney
  3. James bapt 17 Oct 1852 witnesses Michael Bently and Mary Brien (Ballykelly – latter is my 2x great grandmother)

Patrick Reddan and Mary Daniher (aka Dannaher etc):

  1. Bridget baptised 24 Feb 1845 witnesses Michael and Daniel Danaher
  2. Catherine bapt  May 1847 Thomas Campbell and Mary Daniher
  3. Michael bapt 26 Jan 1851 wit Ellen Kinerk and James Kinnane
  4. Anne bapt 5 Nov 1856 wit Thomas Kinnane and Mary Anne Reddan (both Gortnaglogh)
  5. John bapt 7 Nov 1858 wit John O’Brien and Kate O’Brien (both Ballykelly – my relations)

We’ll come back to this family in another post.

What is the likely relationship of the family of James Reddan and Mary Scott to my O’Brien-Reddan family?

To be honest, I’m not entirely sure, though the DNA strength (49cMs on 12 segments, with longest being 20.95) suggests it should be in the range of a2C2R or 3C1R (third, once removed) cousin connection. However, the paper trail makes this not possible as the closest it can be is 4C2R. What I suspect is happening is that there is some level of endogamy far enough back to “concentrate” the linkage. My hypothesis is that, at best, James Reddan (b~1816) is possibly a sibling of my Mary O’Brien’s mother, Catherine O’Brien nee Reddan (b~1802), and if not, a nephew. For the time being, I’ve added James Reddan snr to my Ancestry tree as Catherine O’Brien’s brother with the thought in my head that I may be one generation out of line.

Where to from here?

Since I was primarily interested in the family of the DNA matches, I focused on tracing the children of James Reddan and Mary Scott. In this I was assisted by various online clues and trees of other researchers. From these I had seen that Winifred and James had been in Manchester, Hartford County, Connecticut – a pivotal point in tracing them.

1870 census REDDAN and ROACHREDDAN Winifred and James 1870 census

Year: 1870; Census Place: Manchester, Hartford, Connecticut; Roll: M593_103; Page: 18B; Image: 347924; Family History Library Film: 545602

I managed to find Winifred in the 1870 US Census at Manchester town, Hartford, Connecticut, living with brother James as boarders in the house of Laurence Roach, his wife, children and other relatives. James’s occupation is showing as “farm labourer” but Winifred doesn’t yet have a listed occupation. Her age is listed as 20.

PostcardManchesterCTCheneyBrothersMills1920

Published by Morris Berman, New Haven, Conn. Made in USA. Public domain on wikipedia.

By 1880, Winnie was married and living with her husband, Thomas (aka John Thomas) Curry in Machester town, Hartford, Connecticut. James is a worker in the silk mill and Winifred is “keeping house”. Manchester played a large role in the silk manufacturing industry until the 1920s.

By the time of the 1900 census, Winifred was on her own with three children, Mary (b abt 1882), John James (b 1886) and Frank (b 1890). It is, as yet, unknown what happened to Winifred’s husband Thomas Curry. Over the years the family remained involved with the mills working in various capacities. Winifred reached a very old age, dying in 1943. She is buried in the St Bridget’s cemetery, Hartford, Connecticut.

ADDENDUM: Thanks to a tip from Randy at GeneaMusings I found the death of another of Thomas and Winifred’s children, Leo in 1893. I also found a still birth which now eludes me (lazy recording, late night research). There is also a death for James Curry on 17 Nov 1884, aged 2 days which may be theirs, but no parents are noted.

CURRY Leo death part 1Connecticut Marriages, 1640-1939″, database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:QLMW-1DXH : 11 April 2017), Leo Curry, 1893CURRY Leo death part 2

What became of Winnie’s brother, James Reddan?

It is through a family annotation on Find-a-Grave that I learnt James lived in Brooklyn, New York for many years and from that I tracked his census locations over the decades. In 1880 he was still in Hartford, and working as a barber, but by the 1900 census James had relocated to Brooklyn, correctly stating his month and year of birth and indicating he’d arrived in the USA in 1865 and was naturalised. If he arrived in 1865, then he would have been only 12 or 13 so presumably he came to the US with Winifred, or perhaps another relative. It may be his naturalisation registered in Bridgeport, Connecticut in 1874 but it’s difficult to be sure. I have been unsuccessful in locating Winifred and James’s arrival details.

REDDAN James naturalisation 1874National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington, D.C.; Index to New England Naturalization Petitions, 1791-1906 (M1299); Microfilm Serial: M1299; Microfilm Roll: 31

By the time of the 1940 census, James was about 88, and was living in the Chapin Home for the Aged and Infirm, New York. He was also buried in St Bridget’s Cemetery, Hartford. As far as is known, James did not marry or have any children.

But what happened to James and Winifred’s older sister, Mary?

Well, that’s a story for another day.

What do you think of my conclusions? Can you offer further suggestions re the DNA linkages?

[i] originally indexed from the Kilseily microfilm held by Family Search.