The Reddan and Liddy Families: Part II

We saw in my previous post that there were at least three siblings born to James Reddan and Mary Scott of Gortnaglogh, Broadford, Clare. Thanks to DNA matches, clues from descendants, and further research we have learned a little about children Winifred and James and their lives in the USA.

However, what did happen to their older sister Mary?

My theory was that if she had also emigrated to the US we’d likely find her with or near her siblings in Manchester, Connecticut. Did she marry, or did she become her parents’ carer?

I turned once again to the online Catholic parish registers for Broadford, County Clare. Sure enough, Mary Reddan of Gortnaglogh is married on 18 February 1871 to Patrick Liddy from Knockbrack townland in the Parish of Kilnoe. The witnesses once again confirm the family linkages: Pat Tuohy of Knockbrack and Margaret O’Brien from Ballykelly (sister to my 2xgreat grandmother).

REDDAN LIDDY marriage 1871

Marriage extract from the Broadford Parish Registers for 1871.

Pat and Mary Liddy had a large family (baptisms in the Parish of Kilnoe, parents living in the townland of Ballydonaghan):

  1. Patrick 11 Nov 1871 witnesses Michael Reddan and Margaret Liddy

Underneath his name is an annotation to indicate he was married in New York, but unfortunately some of it is obscured. Married to El….Connors (?) at Ascension Church, New York on Oct 9, 191x.

  1. Matthew 28 March 1873 witnesses Michael Reddan and Mary Tuohy
  2. Margaret 7 July 1875 witnesses John Fahey and Ellen Tuohy
  3. John born 1 May 1877 (civil registration)
  4. Bridget 26 February 1879 witnesses John Reddan and Anne Tuohy
  5. Michael born 2 August 1881
  6. Thomas born 30 April 1883 (civil)
Ballydonaghan Askaboutireland

Map of Ballydonaghan townland from Ask About Ireland and Valuations Office.

It seems highly likely that the Tuohy family were close relatives of the Liddy family, perhaps cousins. It’s also relevant that Pat and Mary lived close to Mary’s likely cousin (or 2nd cousin), Honora Garvey at Ballydonaghan. Honora is another sister to my 2xgreat grandmother, Mary O’Brien so this may be how the couple came to know each other.  Pat Liddy is also a witness to the baptism of John Garvey jnr in 1877.

At the time of the 1901 census the family at Ballydonohane (sp) in the DED of Boherglass included Mary 56, John 20, Bridget 18, and Thomas 15 who could all read and write, but none spoke Irish[i]. Mary was already widowed. They were living in a 2nd class dwelling of stone with a thatched roof, 3[ii] rooms and 3 front windows. Their farm included a stable, a cow house, piggery and barn[iii].

By 1911, only John 32, and Thomas 25, are residing on the farm, which had different outhouses: stable, coach house, cow house and calf house.

LIDDY Mary death 1909

Civil registration extract.

It seemed likely Mary had died between 1901 and 1911, so I turned to the civil registration records[iv] to find her death. Luckily, for this period it also included images, so I could confirm I had the right person and learn that daughter Bridget had been present at Mary’s death on 20 February 1909.  Mary was aged 71 (hmm, an interesting age jump since the 1901 census), and she was the widow of Patrick Liddy of Ballydonaghan. In the same way I found Pat’s death on 3 July 1900, aged 61, also witnessed by his daughter Bridget.

OCallaghans estate evictions

Extract of list of tenants on the O’Callaghan estate per Clarelibrary.ie

Although Mary was only 63 at the time of her death, based on baptism dates, she had experienced enormous tragedies. She was born in the depths of the Great Irish Famine yet survived. What impact did it have on her long-term health I wonder? Her son Matthew (17yo) died on 5 February 1891 from “probable meningitis” followed on 18 May 1895 by the death of their youngest son, Michael, aged 13, from pneumonia.  Only five years later her husband Pat died. She must have felt buffeted by some fierce winds of life.

However, this is “only” some of the challenges of her life. She and Pat had also experienced the drama and near-tragedy of being evicted from O’Callaghan’s estate in Bodyke. These evictions are infamous as one of the key factors in the Land Wars. The Liddy family appears on the list of tenants of the estate, and another Liddy/Lyddy family from the townland of Clonmoher was among the two families evicted on the first day[v]. The O’Callaghan estate files are held in the National Library of Ireland’s reference library and may contain some additional information on this family, as they do for the Garvey family.

Given the notation of son Patrick’s baptism, it seems likely he had emigrated to the United States either before Pat snr’s death, or between that of both parents, however I have been unsuccessful in tracing his immigration or naturalisation. It is unknown what happened to their daughters Margaret (pre-1901) or Bridget[vi] (after 1901): did she die, emigrate or marry in the USA or Ireland? John Liddy married Margaret Ryan in Ogonnoloe on 13 February 1912[vii] and presumably remained on the family farm.  Younger brother, Thomas, emigrated on 6 June 1913 on the Mauretania[viii]. The passenger record shows his former residence is with his brother John at Ballydonehan, Bodyke and he was planning to stay with his brother Pat at 1804, 3rd Avenue New York. Thomas states himself as a 22 year old labourer.

Mauretania Tyne and Wear Museum

Mauretania on her maiden voyage in 1907, leaving Tyneside. Image from Tyne and Wear Museum.

Meanwhile, what became of the Reddan property at Gortnaglogh? The Valuation Revisions indicate that ultimately the farms of James and Pat Reddan were combined and inherited by Michael Reddan by at least the early 20th century. As yet, it’s not known what kinship exists between Pat Reddan’s family and that of James Reddan but is seems likely they were cousins of some degree. Pat Reddan died in 1892, aged 97, on 7 February, and his widow, Winifred, aged 92 died on 10 February. Both deaths were witnessed by son Michael. Of course, like so much in genealogy, one discovery arrives with more questions. Where did this Winifred come from? I can not find their marriage, and the mother of Winifred, James and Mary was stated as Mary Scott….did she perhaps have a two first names, based on the naming patterns?  The Michael Reddan who resides at Gortnaglogh in 1901 is the correct age for the one born to Pat Reddan and Mary Daniher…so who is Winifred? What am I missing here?

REDDAN Patrick and Winifred deaths 1892

Image extracted from ID 3709465 on irishgenealogy.ie Civil Registrations.

The bonus of DNA is that it has established a kinship connection between James and Mary Reddan’s children, Winifred, James and Mary.

I wonder if a Liddy match will come up at some stage?

I’d be very interested in hearing from any descendants of these families, either in Ireland or in the USA or elsewhere.

I’m also curious how many east Clare descendants have had their DNA tested…feel free to contact me if you wish.

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[i] Householder’s return (Form A)

[ii] House and Building return. (Form B1)

[iii] Out offices and farm steadings return (Form B2)

[iv] https://civilrecords.irishgenealogy.ie/churchrecords/civil-search.jsp

[v] My assumption re this family is based on the fact that the other eviction that day was of the widow Margaret McNamara who also lived at Clonmoher.

[vi] I can not find her marriage or death in the Irish records, nor an obvious immigration record. She is not the Bridget Lyddy who emigrates on the Celtic in 1910 as her former residence is with her father, John at Bodyke and it seems likely this is John Lyddy from Clonmoher townland.

[vii] Civil registration 1971946

[viii] Donated material on the Clare Library website from Ellis Island information.

The Bodyke Evictions and the Garvey family

In the summer of 1887, 125 years ago, a grassroots agrarian revolution was taking place in the otherwise quiet parish of Bodyke, County Clare.  Colonel O’Callaghan , one of the local landowners, had significant rental arrears on his tenancies and planned to take action against those in default, evicting them with force.  There is a tendency for family historians to assume that landowners simply evicted their tenants without fear of the law, yet this was not the case. The eviction would be preceded by a legal process before sending in a force of constabulary or emergency men to enforce the eviction.

Nevertheless the rents had been steadily increasing over the preceding years, in part because of O’Callaghan’s own personal expenses.  Such was the increase that the judicially imposed rate might be nearly double the Griffith Valuation of the early 1850s, yet the rack rent would be a further 50% or more higher.  Despite these rents, at least some families were not farming quality land. Rather the land they rented was often poor quality mountain land with limited productivity.  Often the tenants were truly poor and utterly unable to fund the exorbitant rack rents. To put these expenses in context, a housemaid on the O’Callaghan/Westropp estate in the 1830s would earn only £3 a year, nearly the same amount (£3/4/7 ½) that tenant John Garvey had to find on each gale day in March and September of the 1830s. This clearly shows how each family member would need to earn and contribute to the rental payments.[i]

I love this photo of Honorah O’Brien Garvey which was given to me by her great-granddaughter. Her face reflects her hard life yet also shows her strength of character, offset with the bunch of violets.

John Garvey, rented poor mountain land in the townland of Ballydonaghan, valued at £7/10/- by Griffith with a judicial rent of £8 and rack rent of £12. His land was among the poorest on the estate which perhaps reflects the close correlation between the judicial rate and Griffith’s valuation. Over the years his rentals were often paid late and the payment was a mix of cash and labour, including gamekeeping or his wife’s needlework.  It’s no surprise then to find that he was listed among the 57 to face eviction in June 1887.

The local Catholic parish priest, Fr Peter Murphy and his curate Fr J Hannon, were both strong supporters of the Land League and ownership of the land by the people. Throughout this struggle, they were naturally on the side of the tenants, virtually all of whom would have been their parishioners. Fr Murphy attempted to negotiate a compromise agreement with Colonel O’Callaghan which might satisfy the landowner yet be possible for the tenants to pay. The 57 tenants joined the Plan of Campaign to challenge the evictions, supported by their clergy. However the negotiations faltered and these 57 tenant farmers on the O’Callaghan estate received eviction notices.

The memorial christening font in the Bodyke Catholic church. P Cass 2003

The evictions went ahead amidst much public outcry and significant press attention. The tenants put up a feisty defence, barricading houses and passing belongings to their neighbours. Of the 57 families, 30 were evicted[ii] before the process ground to a halt. The name of John Garvey is number 32 on the list so it seems the family narrowly avoided being turned out of their home and the roof knocked in.

Are you wondering why tenant John Garvey is the person I’ve chosen to highlight? He became my 3xgreat uncle when he married Honorah O’Brien from the nearby parish of Kilseily (Broadford), itself a venue for huge Land Rights meetings in the 19th century.  Honorah was sister to my Mary O’Brien and they had grown up on the hilly townland of Ballykelly not far from Broadford village.

Although the Garveys escaped eviction, the fight presumably took its toll and John died in March 1888. On some of the eviction lists his name has been replaced by that of his widow, Honorah Garvey. Life didn’t become much easier for Honorah as when their home was “visited” by the landlord’s agent on 22 April 1892, she is recorded as being in rent arrears of £60, a huge amount of money. The same page is also noted showing rent of £8 yearly, arrears £15 and £75 wiped off. The reason for the difference appears to be the reduction in rent from the rack rate of £12 to the judicial rate of £8 but this does not explain it all. The Garvey land of 260 acres and 12 perches is described as “mountain with patches of tillage”. A faint annotation on the bottom of the page says (smashed) (going away) yet we know she never left Bodyke and other records, including the 1901 and 1911 censuses, indicate she remained on the property.[iii]

Nothing on this window gives a clue that John and Honora Garvey lived and died in Ireland.

The annotations also note her husband is dead and she has sons Patrick and Cornelius.[iv] The latter is interesting because at different times both sons went to America to earn a living, as did some of their siblings. Five of Honora’s children emigrated permanently to Australia showing the significance of chain migration in Irish research.

John and Hanorah Garvey are my family’s faces from the Battle of Bodyke, illustrating the precariousness of tenancy until land ownership became possible.  They are honoured by their Australian family with a stained glass window in the Catholic parish church of St Peter’s Surry Hills, Sydney.

FURTHER INFORMATION

Clare Library’s Bodyke Evictions pages.

East Clare Heritage Commemoration of the 125th anniversary of the evictions 20th July 2012.

The Bodyke Evictions, J S Kelly

Further references are included in the footnotes.


[i] Manuscript MSS3250 Servants’ wages book of the O’Callaghan-Westropp family 1824-1863.

[ii] Bodkyke, Henry Norman. Held at the Clare Library, Ennis. Other reports say 28 households were evicted.

[iii] My notes include the comment on these records “fantastic information on some tenants including sons in America”.

[iv] Rent rolls of the O’Callaghan-Westropp estate County Clare, National Library of Ireland, manuscripts 866 (1853-1883) and MS 867 (1865-1882), page 103.